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01 November 2016
National Museum of Mongolia - Democratic Mongolia 1920-present
|  Prehistory of Mongolia |  Ancient States    
|  Traditional Clothing and Jewelry |  Mongolian Empire |  Traditional Culture of Mongolia |  Traditional Life of Mongolia
|  17-Early 20th Century Mongolia  |  Socialist Mongolia 1921-1900 |  Democratic Mongolia 1990-  


Democratic Mongolia 1990-present

In the late 1980s, the Soviet Union went through fundamental political changes (Perestroika). When the communist system finally collapsed, it heralded equally significant changes for the Mongolian People's Republic, and awakened a national consciousness. All over Mongolia, people established political groups and clubs calling for social justice, freedom and democratisation. A great number of new political parties were founded, their names reflecting the broad range of topics considered important by the democratic movement. Among others, these included the Democratic Socialist Union, the New Progressive Union, the Mongolian Social Democratic Party, the Mongolian National Democratic Party, the Free Labour Party and the Green Party. In December 1989, the Mongolian Democratic Union (MDU) was formed. Sanjaa Zorig, a teacher of the National University of Mongolia, was elected as "general Coordinator" of the MDU.

In the first free multi-party elections held in July 1990, the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party obtained 60 percent of the votes, and so stayed in power. However, the new Prime Minister D. Byambasuren appointed two opposition leaders to his cabinet, and the new government began implementing democratic reforms for the new parliamentary republic.






Constitution of Mongolia 1992

The constitution, which was approved on 25 January 1992, changed the name of the country from 'the People's Republic of Mongolia', set in 1924, to 'Mongolia.' The name was selected by members of parliament, and was accompanied by a pledge to develop a humane, civil and democratic society, respecting human rights, freedom, justice, and national unity.



Seal of the Mongolian Democratic Party MDP



Flag of Mongolia

The national flag is divdied vertically into three parts of equl width. The blue portion symbolises the eternal blue sky. The two outer portions are red, and symbolise progress and prosperity. The golden soyombo signifies Mongolian independence, and adorns the red portion of the flag nearest to the pole. The ratio of the height to width of the flag is 1:2.













Paper Printed Colour Printed on   

Investment  Vouchers   


20 x 21 cm  



Hammer, Anvil, State Great Khural


Within walking pattern depicted round wooden base and a flat skilet and brown paint around the walking pattern, and in front of Soyombo portrayed hammer.


A Mongolian passport authorises and facilitates travel and other activities in Mongolia, or by Mongolian citizens. In medival times, the Mongol Empire issued the first official passports (known as gerege) to officials and emissaries. Such a passport authorised the bearer to travel throughout the empire using the yam (Urtuu) system of relay stations that provided food and a fresh horse.

Nowdays, all Mongolian citizens are required to register and apply for a civil passport within 30 days of reaching the age of 16. This is an important form of identification, especially for nomadic people who travel often. Foreign travel passports are issued to citizens of Mongolia for international travel. New Mongolian passports are issued by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs (MFA) in Ulaanbaatar, or at Mongolian embassies worldwide. With the participation of developed countries, the mining sector in Mongolia has developed rapidly. Mongolia's rich mineral deposits carry the potential to bring great wealth to the country and to Mongolian society.

In modern Mongolia, important cultural goals include re-establishing monastic centres of learning, building schools and universities, and training bright students and scientists overseas.


|  Prehistory of Mongolia |  Ancient States    
|  Traditional Clothing and Jewelry |  Mongolian Empire |  Traditional Culture of Mongolia |  Traditional Life of Mongolia
|  17-Early 20th Century Mongolia  |  Socialist Mongolia 1921-1900 |  Democratic Mongolia 1990-  



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