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28 October 2016
National Museum of Mongolia - The Mongolian Empire
|  Prehistory of Mongolia |  Ancient States    
|  Traditional Clothing and Jewelry |  Mongolian Empire |  Traditional Culture of Mongolia |  Traditional Life of Mongolia
|  17-Early 20th Century Mongolia  |  Socialist Mongolia 1921-1900 |  Democratic Mongolia 1990-  


The Mongolian Empire

Great chinggis Khan and his successors established and succeeded the Mongolian Empire, the largest empire in world history. The Mongolia National Museum possesses more than 100 objects: a state banner, the 'paiza' (a form of early passport), gold jewelry, silk robes, leather and chainmail armor, bows and arrows and horse tack/saddles, along with the artifacts discovered from Khara Khorum, the first capital of the Mongolian Empire.




White Banner

The White Banner is knwon in Mongolian as 'Yisun Kholt Tsagaan Tug', or 'Peace Banner'. It is mentioned in many historical works about the ancient Mongols. The White Banner was raised during times of peace, or in a place away from war. In a tradition that continues to the present day, Mongolians present offerings to the White Banner. The main part of the White Banner is made from the tails of white mares. The primary banner is surrounded by eight additional banners. Every three years, an offering to the White Banner was held during a grand ceremony. Since the 19th century, this ceremony has formed part of the annual Naadam celebration.







Ger-Tereg's / Yurt / Wheel Hub

13th-14th Century

Cast iron

35.5 x 8.5 cm

Kharkhorum, Kharkhorin, Uvurkhangai











Bow and Arrow Set

11th 12th Century

Birch-bark, wood, iron

Bow: 117cm cm x 10 cm

Arrow: 79cm x 9 cm, 90g

Artsat del, Bumbumur, Bayankhongor




Chinggis Khan


Ogedei Khan


Khubilai Khan





Gilded Belt Decoration

13th-14th Century

Gold, copper

Buhiin hoshuu, Delgerkhann, Khentii

(Mongolian Belt)

The belt played an important role, which was determined by the specifics of running livestock husbandry and noamdic style of life. Due to the harsh weather, it is necessary to keep warm, tightening the waist by the belt over the clothes, while it is applied for hanging useful tools such as hobbles, knives, flint. In addtion, warriors departing to war used to have on their belt cases for arrows and bow, knives and swords. Therefore, steppe warriors considered belt, one of the incredibly significant things, as the symbol of masculine strenght and spiritual power, which was gradually changed into items of worship.


Bogtag Decoration

13th-14th Century

Gold Turquoise, mother-of-pearl

6.15 cm, 14.7g

Khulkhin am, khotont, Arkhangai 

Botag is a unique garment of the Mongol women. It is consists of 3 main parts: the wearing part or bottom, the middle part or connecting part of the lower and upper parts of the hat, and the narrowed upper part of birch bark. The front surface of the hat was adorned with decoration, which are described as a dragon, phoenix, stupa, flame of fire etc. The top part of the hats are usually red, and are decorated with bird feathers or long sticks.

     See related VCM Masterpiece

      1. Bogtag Hat Belonging to a Mongolian Queen / Mongolian satehood History Museum


|  Prehistory of Mongolia |  Ancient States    
|  Traditional Clothing and Jewelry |  Mongolian Empire |  Traditional Culture of Mongolia |  Traditional Life of Mongolia
|  17-Early 20th Century Mongolia  |  Socialist Mongolia 1921-1900 |  Democratic Mongolia 1990-  


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